The drip irrigation system appeared in the 19th century, but it was not until the 20th century that it was actively introduced into gardening and horticulture. It is, of course, most widely used in large-scale industries, where crops are grown on huge plantations, fields, greenhouses and greenhouses. However, it is used in small private gardens and vegetable gardens. Features of drip irrigation, its types, advantages and disadvantages will be described below in the article.
What is a drip irrigation system?
In the drip system, water enters the plant through special pipes connected to the main source of water supply at the site. These tubes are laid between cultures. They have built-in droppers, through which water flows directly under the root of each individual plant.
Scheme of drip irrigation system
The drip irrigation system is not very complicated, some people even collect it themselves, carry it out. It consists of 7 main parts.
- Drip tape - pipelines, which are, in fact, the basis of the whole structure.
- A controller is a mechanism that controls the time, quantity and volume of watering.
- Filters are necessary to purify water, but sometimes they are not placed.
- Valves for adjusting the flow of water.
- Fertilizer application unit - simplifies the application of fertilizer.
- Water meter (to control flow).
There is a mass of different diameters of pipes, cranes, types of droppers, etc. Depending on all these details, you can adjust the rate of irrigation for individual crops - somewhere the water will flow in a larger volume, and somewhere in a smaller one. The truth is, the more perfect the system, the more expensive it will cost, but those who have tried drip irrigation, speak mostly positively of it - the cost fully pays for itself.
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The drip irrigation system is automatic and not automatic. The first can be programmed to regularly supply and turn off the water at a certain time and in the right amount. In the second case, the gardener needs to turn the water on and off and adjust the pressure all the time so that the plants do not flood.
Do-it-yourself drip irrigation system
In addition to the type of drip systems, there are also two types of drip tapes (pipes through which water enters the droppers).
- Annual tapes (vegetable) serve 1 year. They serve well and are ideally suited for small private farms, where the plot scheme changes from year to year. Because of the constant change in the layout, it is impossible to establish a permanent drip system, which is why annuals are used.
- Perennial systems can last 20-50 years. They are usually installed in greenhouses, greenhouses, vineyards, gardens, where the layout does not change for many years. For the winter, the system is removed, and for the next season it is disassembled again, so that in winter it does not freeze over, mechanical damage does not appear, etc.
Benefits of drip irrigation
During their existence, drip irrigation has become very popular not only in large complexes, but also in small gardens and private plots. Such a stir can only be explained by an abundance of positive qualities.
Innovative drip systems are mostly automated.
- Innovative drip systems are mostly automated. A gardener can set the time at which the water should turn on, turn off, when it should be more or less.
- Saving time for the gardener - no longer need to spend time and effort every day to water all the beds.
- In the drip irrigation system, you can include the flow of liquid fertilizer. And this allows you to significantly simplify not only watering, but also plant nutrition.
- Saving water. Since the water comes directly under the root, there is a significant saving of the resource.
- Use on different soils, a landscape, under any climate and for any garden and garden cultures is possible.
- During transportation of the fluid through the pipes, it warms up a little.
- The development of fungus and some diseases associated with drought is prevented, as the land will always be wet under the plant.
- The leaves will not receive thermal and chemical burns, as watering is carried out directly under the root.
In addition to these advantages, there is one more important thing - the ability to make and assemble the structure yourself, if the gardener has all the necessary details that you don’t even need to buy (pipes, droppers and even valves can be made or taken from other mechanisms). Making a similar system independently, the gardener saves money.
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However, even though the drip irrigation system seems to be universal and almost perfect, there are certain shortcomings in it.
Fittings and drip tapes are subject to mechanical damage.
- The cost of a good drip irrigation design can be quite high.
- Dropper tubes may become clogged, with the result that water will either not flow at all or not in the amount that a gardener needs.
- Fittings and drip tapes are subject to mechanical damage.
- The root system can develop very densely due to the fact that moisture is concentrated in one place.